Intraoperative cholangiography

Elena Rangelova, Robert Padbury

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


During intraoperative cholangiography (IOC), radio-opaque contrast is injected into the biliary tree to delineate the internal anatomy of the biliary tract from intrahepatic origins to termination at the choledocho-duodenal junction. Its purpose is to visualize structural anatomical variations or morphologic abnormalities (gallstones, strictures or possible bile duct injury) that may aid the decision-making and intervention during surgery or help guide further postoperative investigation or intervention. IOC is most often performed during cholecystectomy, laparoscopic or open. IOC was first introduced
by Reich in 1918 in an attempt to detect a
biliary fistula [1, 2]. In the 1930s, its importance
was demonstrated for the detection of common
bile duct stones, strictures, and intraoperative bile
duct injuries [2, 3]. Since then the technique for
performing IOC and the quality of the obtained
images has improved substantially.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThe Management of Gallstone Disease
Subtitle of host publicationA Practical and Evidence-Based Approach
EditorsMichael R. Cox, Guy D. Eslick, Robert Padbury
Place of PublicationSwitzerland
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9783319638843
ISBN (Print)9783319638829
Publication statusPublished - 14 Apr 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • IOC
  • biliary tree
  • gallstones
  • bile duct injury


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