Irritable bowel syndrome, its cognition, anxiety sensitivity, and anticipatory anxiety in panic disorder patients

Nagisa Sugaya, Eiji Yoshida, Shin Yasuda, Mamoru Tochigi, Kunio Takei, Toshiyuki Ohtani, Takeshi Otowa, Takanobu Minato, Tadashi Umekage, Yuji Sakano, Junwen Chen, Hironori Shimada, Shinobu Nomura, Yuji Okazaki, Hisanobu Kaiya, Hisashi Tanii, Tsukasa Sasaki

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    8 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Aim The present study examined the effect of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), cognitive appraisal of IBS, and anxiety sensitivity on anticipatory anxiety (AA) and agoraphobia (AG) in patients with panic disorder (PD). Methods We examined 244 PD patients who completed a set of questionnaires that included the Rome II Modular Questionnaire to assess the presence of IBS, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), the Cognitive Appraisal Rating Scale (CARS; assessing the cognitive appraisal of abdominal symptoms in four dimensions: commitment, appraisal of effect, appraisal of threat, and controllability), and items about the severity of AA and AG. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to diagnose AG and PD. Results After excluding individuals with possible organic gastrointestinal diseases by using 'red flag items,' valid data were obtained from 174 participants, including 110 PD patients without IBS (PD/IBS[-]) and 64 with IBS (PD/IBS[+]). The PD/IBS[+] group had higher AA and higher comorbidity with AG than the PD/IBS[-] group. In the PD/IBS[+] group, the controllability score of CARS was significantly correlated with AA and ASI. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant effect of ASI but not of controllability on AA in PD/IBS[+] subjects. Conclusion This study suggested that the presence of IBS may be related to agoraphobia and anticipatory anxiety in PD patients. Cognitive appraisal could be partly related to anticipatory anxiety in PD patients with IBS with anxiety sensitivity mediating this correlation.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)397-404
    Number of pages8
    JournalPsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
    Volume67
    Issue number6
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Sep 2013

    Keywords

    • anxiety
    • cognitive factors
    • irritable bowel syndrome
    • panic disorder

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