The islet-acinar axis is of prime importance to the optimal functioning of the human pancreas. Not only is this inter-relationship important for normal physiological processes, it is also relevant in diseased states, including chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Early experiments, nearly 4 decades ago, explored the role of islets in the development and progression of PDAC. These led to further studies that provided compelling evidence to support the role of islets and their hormones in PDAC. This association presents oncologists with therapeutic options not only for managing, but potentially preventing PDAC, a cancer that is well known for its poor patient outcomes. This review will discuss the accumulated evidence regarding the role of islets and their hormones in PDAC and highlight areas for future research.