Isoindigo-Based Polymers and Small Molecules for Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells and Field Effect Transistors

Ergang Wang, Wendimagegn Mammo, Mats R. Andersson

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

    337 Citations (Scopus)


    Driven by the potential advantages and promising applications of organic solar cells, donor-acceptor (D-A) polymers have been intensively investigated in the past years. One of the strong electron-withdrawing groups that were widely used as acceptors for the construction of D-A polymers for applications in polymer solar cells and FETs is isoindigo. The isoindigo-based polymer solar cells have reached efficiencies up to 7% and hole mobilities as high as 3.62 cm 2 V -1 s -1 have been realized by FETs based on isoindigo polymers. Over one hundred isoindigo-based small molecules and polymers have been developed in only three years. This review is an attempt to summarize the structures and properties of the isoindigo-based polymers and small molecules that have been reported in the literature since their inception in 2010. Focus has been given only to the syntheses and device performances of those polymers and small molecules that were designed for use in solar cells and FETs. Attempt has been made to deduce structure-property relationships that would guide the design of isoindigo-based materials. It is expected that this review will present useful guidelines for the design of efficient isoindigo-based materials for applications in solar cells and FETs. This review summarizes isoindigobased polymers and small molecules for bulk-heterojunction solar cells and field-effect transistors (FETs). The structure-property relationships are deduced based on results from the literature and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Isoindigo-based materials are anticipated to play an important role in the development of solar cells and FETs due to their appropriate energy levels, high absorption coefficients, and mobility.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1801-1826
    Number of pages26
    JournalAdvanced Materials
    Issue number12
    Publication statusPublished - 26 Mar 2014


    • conjugated polymers
    • conjugated small molecules
    • field effect transistors
    • isoindigo
    • solar cells


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