Passiflora contracta Vitta (Passifloraceae) is an endemic species of the Atlantic Rainforest, one of the most species-rich ecoregions in the world, although extremely endangered. We have developed an enriched microsatellite library in order to fine-scale studies of the genetic structure of P. contracta. Twelve pairs of microsatellite primers were designed, and seven loci were successfully amplified and characterized by genotyping two wild populations of P. contracta. All seven loci were polymorphic, with an average number of alleles found being 4.8 and 5 per population. The cross-species transferability was tested using sister species Passiflora ovalis Vell. Ex Roemer. The development of these markers will contribute to the studies of population genetics in P. contracta as well as future studies concerning diversity patterns in the Atlantic Rainforest, and may also help to establish strategies for the conservation of this species.