Aims: The aims of this study were to explore factors associated with the job satisfaction of overseas-qualified nurses working in public hospitals in South Australia and to compare whether factors associated with job satisfaction of overseas nurses from English-speaking backgrounds differed from those from non-English-speaking backgrounds. Background: Overseas-qualified nurses have become an essential part of the nursing workforce in Australia. Although this nurse population has different expectations and values in relation to their jobs when compared with local nurses, studies on job satisfaction among overseas nurses are scarce. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using the Job Satisfaction of Overseas-Qualified Nurses questionnaire was conducted in five major public hospitals in South Australia. Results: One hundred and fifty-one overseas-qualified nurses completed the questionnaire. Four factors were found to influence job satisfaction: Supportive work environment, interpersonal relationships, communication in English, and salary and salary-related benefits. Communication in English was the predominant factor that was associated with job satisfaction in nurses from non-English-speaking backgrounds. This group of nurses also showed a negative correlation between length of stay in Australia and satisfaction with their work environment. Participants' responses to open-ended questions revealed issues relating to discrimination and racism. Conclusion: Supportive work environment, interpersonal relationships, communication in English, and salary and salary-related benefits were major factors associated with job satisfaction in overseas-qualified nurses in this study. Nurses from non-English-speaking backgrounds faced additional challenges in communication in the workplace and in dealing with issues of discrimination and racism. Implications for Nursing and/or Health Policy: Nurses from non-English-speaking backgrounds need to be supported early in their employment, especially with their communication skills. Consideration also needs to be given to the education of local staff regarding cultural differences of overseas workers.