Leveraging Human Plasma-Derived Small Extracellular Vesicles as Liquid Biopsy to Study the Induction of Cytochrome P450 3A4 by Modafinil

A. David Rodrigues, Linda S. Wood, Manoli Vourvahis, Andrew Rowland

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Abstract

Preparations of plasma-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) were deployed as liquid biopsy to study cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 (CYP3A4) induction following modafinil 400 mg once daily × 14 days (young healthy volunteers, N = 10 subjects). Induction was confirmed using the 4β-hydroxycholesterol-to-cholesterol (4βHC/C) ratio, a plasma CYP3A4/5 biomarker, with a mean 2.1-fold increase (Day 15 vs. Day 1; 90% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8–2.3; P value = 0.0004). Proteomic analysis revealed the induction (mean Day 15 vs. Day 1 fold-increase (90% CI)) of both liver (1.3 (1.1–1.5), P value = 0.014) and nonliver (1.9 (1.6–2.2), P value = 0.04) sEV CYP3A4 protein expression. In CYP3A5 nonexpresser subjects, the baseline (pre-dose) 4βHC/C plasma ratio was more highly correlated with liver sEVs (r = 0.937, P value = 0.001) than nonliver sEVs (r = 0.619, P value = 0.101) CYP3A4 protein expression. When CYP3A5 expressers (CYP3A5*1/*3) were included, the correlation with liver sEVs (r = 0.761, P value = 0.011) and nonliver sEVs (r = 0.391, P value = 0.264) CYP3A4 protein was weaker. Although modafinil-induced changes in plasma 4βHC/C ratio did not correlate with sEVs CYP3A4 protein expression, the individual subject sEVs proteomic data were used successfully to predict victim drug (midazolam, triazolam, dextromethorphan, 17α-ethinylestradiol, and abemaciclib) area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) ratios (AUCRs) following modafinil. Based on the AUCR values, modafinil was classified as a weak to moderate CYP3A4 inducer (vs. rifampicin). For the first time, it was possible to deploy plasma-derived sEVs to study CYP3A4 induction beyond rifampicin, a more potent CYP3A4 inducer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)425-434
Number of pages10
JournalClinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Volume111
Issue number2
Early online date8 Oct 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022

Keywords

  • Human Plasma
  • Liquid Biopsy
  • Small Extracellular Vesicles
  • Cytochrome

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