Indonesia's post-Suharto regionalism is a response to the nation's former centralist governance, and to real or perceived socio-economic disadvantage. Islands in the eastern archipelago illustrate this well, because there-far from the national capital Jakartalocal and national interaction is being redefined as regions seek improved social, economic, and political environments. Whilst in most cases not defying national integration, people in these regions no longer wish to be dependent upon the central authority of Jakarta, and look beyond previously restricted boundaries for new opportunities. This article explores some of the territorial realignments and key geopolitical networks that have been formed as a result of this. These include new provinces and trans-regional collaborations in which leaders claim to offer greater protection for local interests. In case studies from the eastern zone, this article examines some of the cooperation and competition generated in the process of forming the new locations and alliances. It evaluates benefits for local communities, and seeks to understand how the new regionalism may influence established concepts and patterns of power in the nation.