Snellen acuity, reading line, and keratometry were measured in a cohort of 60 patients at 2 or more years after penetrating keratoplasty was performed. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire to elicit information on their perceptions of visual function and the success of the procedure. Using preferred correction, a Snellen acuity of 6/18 or better was achieved by 65%, and a reading line of N8 or better was achieved by 57% of index grafts. Thirtyeight percent had more than 5 diopters (D) of astigmatism in the graft. Approximately 75% of patients reported satisfaction with their graft (satisfaction being associated with better acuity in the grafted eye than the other eye), graft clarity, and a perceived improvement in lifestyle. Dissatisfaction appeared to be associated with graft failure and problems with contact lens wear. The findings have implications for patient selection for corneal transplantation and for the measurement of outcome.