Long-term quantification and characterisation of wind farm noise amplitude modulation

Phuc D. Nguyen, Kristy L. Hansen, Peter Catcheside, Colin H. Hansen, Branko Zajamsek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


The large-scale expansion of wind farms has prompted community debate regarding adverse impacts of wind farm noise (WFN). One of the most annoying and potentially sleep disturbing components of WFN is amplitude modulation (AM). Here we quantified and characterised AM over one year using acoustical and meteorological data measured at three locations near three wind farms. We found that the diurnal variation of outdoor AM prevalence was substantial, whereby the nighttime prevalence was approximately 2 to 5 times higher than the daytime prevalence. On average, indoor AM occurred during the nighttime from 1.1 to 1.7 times less often than outdoor AM, but the indoor AM depth was higher than that measured outdoors. We observed an association between AM prevalence and sunset and sunrise. AM occurred more often during downwind and crosswind conditions. These findings provide important insights into long term WFN characteristics that will help to inform future WFN assessment guidelines.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109678
Number of pages9
JournalMeasurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


  • Amplitude modulation
  • Long-term characterisation and quantification
  • Wind farm noise


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