Losses in efficiency maps of electric vehicles: An overview

Emad Roshandel, Amin Mahmoudi, Solmaz Kahourzade, Amirmehdi Yazdani, G. M. Shafiullah

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
149 Downloads (Pure)


In some applications such as electric vehicles, electric motors should operate in a wide torque and speed ranges. An efficiency map is the contour plot of the maximum efficiency of an electric machine in torque-speed plane. It is used to provide an overview on the performance of an electric machine when operates in different operating points. The electric machine losses in different torque and speed operating points play a prominent role in the efficiency of the machines. In this paper, an overview about the change of various loss components in torque-speed envelope of the electric machines is rendered to show the role and significance of each loss component in a wide range of torque and speeds. The research gaps and future research subjects based on the conducted review are reported. The role and possibility of the utilization of the computational intelligence-based modeling of the losses in improvement of the loss estimation is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7805
Number of pages27
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - 2 Nov 2021


  • Copper loss
  • Drive losses
  • Efficiency map
  • Electric machine losses
  • Iron loss
  • PM loss
  • Transmission system losses


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