Low Risk of Hyperprogression with First-Line Chemoimmunotherapy for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Pooled Analysis of 7 Clinical Trials

Lee X. Li, Federico Cappuzzo, Ignacio Matos, Mark A. Socinski, Ashley M. Hopkins, Michael J. Sorich

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2 Citations (Scopus)
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Background: Monotherapy immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) used in second- or later-line settings has been reported to induce hyperprogression. This study evaluated hyperprogression risk with ICI (atezolizumab) in the first-, second-, or later-line treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and provides insights into hyperprogression risk with contemporary first-line ICI treatment. 

Methods: Hyperprogression was identified using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST)-based criteria in a dataset of pooled individual-participant level data from BIRCH, FIR, IMpower130, IMpower131, IMpower150, OAK, and POPLAR trials. Odds ratios were computed to compare hyperprogression risks between groups. Landmark Cox proportional-hazard regression was used to evaluate the association between hyperprogression and progression-free survival/overall survival. Secondarily, putative risk factors for hyperprogression among second- or later-line atezolizumab-treated patients were evaluated using univariate logistic regression models. 

Results: Of the included 4644 patients, 119 of the atezolizumab-treated patients (n = 3129) experienced hyperprogression. Hyperprogression risk was markedly lower with first-line atezolizumab-either chemoimmunotherapy or monotherapy-compared to second/later-line atezolizumab monotherapy (0.7% vs. 8.8%, OR = 0.07, 95% CI, 0.04-0.13). Further, there was no statistically significant difference in hyperprogression risk with first-line atezolizumab-chemoimmunotherapy versus chemotherapy alone (0.6% vs. 1.0%, OR = 0.55, 95% CI, 0.22-1.36). Sensitivity analyses using an extended RECIST-based criteria including early death supported these findings. Hyperprogression was associated with worsened overall survival (HR = 3.4, 95% CI, 2.7-4.2, P < .001); elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was the strongest risk factor for hyperprogression (C-statistic = 0.62, P < .001). 

Conclusions: This study presents first evidence for a markedly lower hyperprogression risk in advanced NSCLC patients treated with first-line ICI, particularly with chemoimmunotherapy, as compared to second- or later-line ICI treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e205-e211
Number of pages7
JournalThe Oncologist
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • chemoimmunotherapy
  • hyperprogression
  • hyperprogressive disease
  • immune checkpoint inhibitor
  • non–small cell lung cancer


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