The majority of high-performance perovskite and polymer solar cells consist of a TiO2 electron transport layer (ETL) processed at a high temperature (>450 °C). Here, we demonstrate that low-temperature (80 °C) ETL thin film of TiOx:Zn1-xCdxS can be used as an effective ETL and its band energy can be tuned by varying the TiOx:Zn1-xCdxS ratio. At the optimal ratio of 50:50 (vol%), the MAPbIxCl1-x perovskite and PCBTBT:PC70BM polymer solar cells achieved 9.79% and 4.95%, respectively. Morphological and optoelectronic analyses showed that tailoring band edges and homogeneous distribution of the local surface charges could improve the solar cells e°ciency by more than 2%. We proposed a plausible mechanism to rationalize the variation in morphology and band energy of the ETL.
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- Electron transport layer
- Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy
- Solar cells