Low-temperature processed TiOx/Zn1-xCdxS nanocomposite for efficient MAPbIxCl1-x Perovskite and PCDTBT:PC70BM polymer solar cells

Binh Duong, Khathawut Lohawet, Tanyakorn Muangnapoh, Hideki Nakajima, Narong Chanlek, Anirudh Sharma, David A. Lewis, Pisist Kumnorkaew

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    2 Citations (Scopus)


    The majority of high-performance perovskite and polymer solar cells consist of a TiO2 electron transport layer (ETL) processed at a high temperature (>450 °C). Here, we demonstrate that low-temperature (80 °C) ETL thin film of TiOx:Zn1-xCdxS can be used as an effective ETL and its band energy can be tuned by varying the TiOx:Zn1-xCdxS ratio. At the optimal ratio of 50:50 (vol%), the MAPbIxCl1-x perovskite and PCBTBT:PC70BM polymer solar cells achieved 9.79% and 4.95%, respectively. Morphological and optoelectronic analyses showed that tailoring band edges and homogeneous distribution of the local surface charges could improve the solar cells e°ciency by more than 2%. We proposed a plausible mechanism to rationalize the variation in morphology and band energy of the ETL.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number980
    Issue number6
    Publication statusPublished - 3 Jun 2019

    Bibliographical note

    '© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).'


    • Electron transport layer
    • Perovskite
    • Polymer
    • Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy
    • Solar cells
    • TiO
    • ZnCdS


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