Mangrove establishment in an artificially constructed estuarine channel, Sungei Api-Api, Singapore.

Patrick Hesp, Suzanna Ramos

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The artificial establishment and natural regeneration of mangroves at Sungei Api-Api, a man-made estuarine channel on the north eastern coast of Singapore, is examined. Several environmental factors affecting mangrove growth are briefly detailed, including: (i) slope gradients, (ii) salinity and tidal inundation levels, (iii) substrate type, and other factors such as tidal currents and propagule establishment. An analysis of the environmental factors affecting Sungei Api-Api mangrove growth indicates that successful growth is attained where: (i) fully saline, tidal inundation occurs over low slopes and (ii) the substrate comprises fine sediments. The artificial establishment of mangroves in a man-made channel is shown to be moderately successful in this area. The Sungei Api-Api trial project provides an excellent example of a potentially significant method by which mangroves can be conserved and reintroduced in urban and near urban tropical environments.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationThreats to Mangrove Forests: Hazards, Vulnerability, and Management
Number of pages9
ISBN (Print)9783736996618
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Publication series

NameCoastal Research Library
ISSN (Print)2211-0577
ISSN (Electronic)2211-0585


  • Conservation
  • Mangrove re-establishment
  • Singapore
  • Urban canals/channels


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