Objectives: Visual art is a powerful and expressive communication tool with utility in pediatric settings. We undertook a scoping review to understand how visual arts (e.g. drawing, painting) are used in pediatric populations with health (i.e. medical and psychiatric) conditions. Methods: CINAHL, SCOPUS and PubMed were searched (2001-2011). We used systematic methods for study selection and data extraction. We conducted a descriptive analysis and categorized studies according to the purpose of the artistic intervention. Results: Of 1767 articles retrieved, 16 met the inclusion criteria. Visual art was most commonly used with the conditions of autism and post-traumatic stress disorder. Findings illuminate the use of art visual as a mechanism to facilitate or reduce specific child attributes (e.g. self-efficacy, anxiety) and to facilitate understanding through communication or assessment. Conclusions: This review provides information about the uses of visual art in pediatric populations with health conditions, as well as gaps in existing research.