Respiratory frequency (fR) predicts in-hospital and short-term mortality in patients with a variety of pathophysiological conditions, but its predictive value for long-term cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in the general population is unknown. Here, we investigated the relationship between mean nocturnal fR and mortality in community-dwelling older men and women.We measured mean nocturnal fR during sleep from overnight polysomnography in 2686 men participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) Sleep study and 406 women participating in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF) to investigate the relationship between mean nocturnal fR and long-term cardiovascular and all-cause mortality.166 (6.1%) men in the MrOS cohort (8.9±2.6 years' follow-up) and 46 (11.2%) women in the SOF cohort (6.4±1.6 years' follow-up) died from cardiovascular disease. All-cause mortality was 51.2% and 26.1% during 13.7±3.7 and 6.4±1.6 years' follow-up in the MrOS Sleep study and the SOF cohorts, respectively. Multivariable Cox regression analysis adjusted for significant covariates demonstrated that fR dichotomised at 16 breaths·min-1 was independently associated with cardiovascular mortality (MrOS: hazard ratio (HR) 1.57, 95% CI 1.14-2.15; p=0.005; SOF: HR 2.58, 95% CI 1.41-4.76; p=0.002) and all-cause mortality (MrOS: HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.32; p=0.007; SOF: HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.02-2.20; p=0.04).In community-dwelling older men and women, polysomnography-derived mean nocturnal fR ≥16 breaths·min-1 is an independent predictor of long-term cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Whether nocturnal mean fR can be used as a risk marker warrants further prospective studies.
- Older men and women
- nocturnal respiratory rate