Measures of financial toxicity in cancer survivors: a systematic review

L. B. Thomy, M. Crichton, L. Jones, P. M. Yates, N. H. Hart, L. G. Collins, R. J. Chan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Purpose: Comprehensive cancer-related financial toxicity (FT) measures as a multidimensional construct are lacking. The aims of this systematic review were to (1) identify full measures designed explicitly for assessing FT and evaluate their psychometric properties (content validity, structural validity, reliability, and other measurement properties) using Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN), and (2) provide an analysis of the domains of FT covered in these measures. 

Methods: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched for quantitative studies published from January 2000 to July 2023 that reported psychometric properties of FT measures in cancer survivors. The psychometric properties of FT measures and study risk of bias were analysed using COSMIN. Each FT measure was compared against the six domains of FT recommended by Witte and colleagues. Results were synthesized narratively. The detailed search strategies are available in Table S1. 

Results: Six FT tools including the COST-FACIT, PROFFIT, FIT, SFDQ, HARDS, and ENRICh-Spanish were identified. The COST-FACIT measure had good measurement properties. No measure reached an excellent level for overall quality but was mostly rated as sufficient. The SFDQ, HARDS, and ENRICh-Spanish were the most comprehensive in the inclusion of the six domains of FT. 

Conclusion: This review emphasizes the need for validated multidimensional FT measures that can be applied across various cancer types, healthcare settings, and cultural backgrounds. Furthermore, a need to develop practical screening tools with high predictive ability for FT is highly important, considering the significant consequences of FT. Addressing these gaps in future research will further enhance the understanding of FT.

Original languageEnglish
Article number403
Number of pages14
JournalSupportive Care in Cancer
Issue number7
Early online date4 Jun 2024
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2024


  • Cancer
  • Distress
  • Financial toxicity
  • Hardship
  • Psychometrics


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