Mechanistic Assessment of the Effect of Omeprazole on the In Vivo Pharmacokinetics of Itraconazole in Healthy Volunteers

Ahmad Y. Abuhelwa, Stuart Mudge, Richard N. Upton, David J.R. Foster

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Background and Objective: SUBA-itraconazole and Sporanox are two oral formulations of itraconazole. Drug–drug interactions with omeprazole have been previously reported; however, mechanistic understanding of the pharmacological and physiological interactions of omeprazole with orally administered itraconazole within a population modeling paradigm is lacking. The objective of this analysis was to mechanistically describe and quantify the effect of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of itraconazole and its major metabolite, hydroxyitraconazole from the SUBA itraconazole and Sporanox formulations. Methods: An in vitro–in vivo (IVIV) pharmacokinetic model of itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole was developed including data from an omeprazole interaction study with SUBA itraconazole. Meta-models of gastric pH for healthy subjects and subjects receiving omeprazole were integrated into the IVIV model to capture omeprazole-mediated gastric pH changes on itraconazole dissolution and absorption. Results: Omeprazole influenced the kinetics of itraconazole through altering the dissolution and absorption due to the pH-dependent solubility of itraconazole, inhibition of efflux transporters, and inhibiting the metabolism of itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole. The model-predicted population effects of omeprazole on itraconazole from SUBA-itraconazole were to increase the area under the concentration–time curve (AUC 0–24 ) and maximum concentration (C max ) by 35 and 31%, respectively, and to decrease AUC 0–24 and C max from Sporanox by 68 and 76%, respectively. Conclusion: Unlike SUBA itraconazole, which requires basic pH for itraconazole release, the omeprazole-induced pH-mediated reduction in Sporanox dissolution overrides any increased exposure from the drug–drug interaction at hepatic metabolizing enzymes or efflux transporters. The model presented here is the most complete quantitative description of the pharmacokinetics of itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole currently available.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)201-215
Number of pages15
JournalEuropean Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • SUBA-itraconazole
  • Sporanox
  • Mechanistic Assessment
  • Omeprazole
  • In Vivo Pharmacokinetics
  • Itraconazole
  • Healthy Volunteers


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