The metabolism of [14C]benzo[a]pyrene by microsomes from the lungs of normal and 3-methylcholanthrene-treated DBA/2J, C57BL/6J, and A/HeJ mouse strains was quantitatively analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The ratio of dihydrodiols of benzo[a]pyrene to total metabolites formed was greater with lung microsomes than with liver microsomes in all three strains. The ratio of epoxide hydrase to monooxygenase activity in mouse lung was shown to be considerably higher than in mouse liver. Benzo[a]pyrene metabolism by control lung microsomes showed some strain differences. C57BL/6J and A/HeJ mice formed twice as much dihydrodiols as a percentage of total metabolism compared to DBA/2J mice. DBA/2J mice produced somewhat less phenol 2 fraction and considerably more quinone 1 and 2 fractions than the other two mouse strains as a percentage of total metabolism. Treatment of C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice with 3-methylcholanthrene resulted in a 20-fold increase in the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene, while A/HeJ mice were induced more than 50-fold. The profiles of metabolites from the 3-methylcholanthrene-induced animals were nearly identical in all three mouse strains.