Metagenomic analysis indicates that stressors induce production of herpes-like viruses in the coral Porites compressa

Rebecca L. Vega Thurber, Katie L. Barott, Dana Hall, Hong Liu, Beltran Rodriguez-Mueller, Christelle Desnues, Robert A. Edwards, Matthew Haynes, Florent E. Angly, Linda Wegley, Forest L. Rohwer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

166 Citations (Scopus)


During the last several decades corals have been in decline and at least one-third of all coral species are now threatened with extinction. Coral disease has been a major contributor to this threat, but little is known about the responsible pathogens. To date most research has focused on bacterial and fungal diseases; however, viruses may also be important for coral health. Using a combination of empirical viral metagenomics and real-time PCR, we show that Porites compressa corals contain a suite of eukaryotic viruses, many related to the Herpesviridae. This coral-associated viral consortium was found to shift in response to abiotic stressors. In particular, when exposed to reduced pH, elevated nutrients, and thermal stress, the abundance of herpes-like viral sequences rapidly increased in 2 separate experiments. Herpes-like viral sequences were rarely detected in apparently healthy corals, but were abundant in a majority of stressed samples. In addition, surveys of the Nematostella and Hydra genomic projects demonstrate that even distantly related Cnidarians contain numerous herpes-like viral genes, likely as a result of latent or endogenous viral infection. These data support the hypotheses that corals experience viral infections, which are exacerbated by stress, and that herpes-like viruses are common in Cnidarians.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)18413-18418
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number47
Publication statusPublished - 25 Nov 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Coral reefs
  • Disease
  • Herpesviridae
  • Viral-like particles
  • Virome


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