Mixture of autoregressive modeling orders and its implication on single trial EEG classification

Adham Atyabi, Frederick Shic, Adam Naples

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    35 Citations (Scopus)


    Autoregressive (AR) models are of commonly utilized feature types in Electroencephalogram (EEG) studies due to offering better resolution, smoother spectra and being applicable to short segments of data. Identifying correct AR's modeling order is an open challenge. Lower model orders poorly represent the signal while higher orders increase noise. Conventional methods for estimating modeling order include Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and Final Prediction Error (FPE). This article assesses the hypothesis that appropriate mixture of multiple AR orders is likely to better represent the true signal compared to any single order. Better spectral representation of underlying EEG patterns can increase utility of AR features in Brain Computer Interface (BCI) systems by increasing timely & correctly responsiveness of such systems to operator's thoughts. Two mechanisms of Evolutionary-based fusion and Ensemble-based mixture are utilized for identifying such appropriate mixture of modeling orders. The classification performance of the resultant AR-mixtures are assessed against several conventional methods utilized by the community including (1) A well-known set of commonly used orders suggested by the literature, (2) conventional order estimation approaches (e.g., AIC, BIC and FPE), (3) blind mixture of AR features originated from a range of well-known orders. Five datasets from BCI competition III that contain 2, 3 and 4 motor imagery tasks are considered for the assessment. The results indicate superiority of Ensemble-based modeling order mixture and evolutionary-based order fusion methods within all datasets.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)164-180
    Number of pages17
    JournalExpert Systems with Applications
    Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2016


    • Autoregressive analysis
    • Electroencephalogram
    • Genetic algorithm
    • Particle Swarm Optimization


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