MOBILISE: A Higher-Order Integration of Collective Action Research to Address Global Challenges

Emma F. Thomas, Lauren Duncan, Craig McGarty, Winnifred R. Louis, Laura G.E. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


The past decade has witnessed rapid growth in popular protest, alongside an upsurge in research on collective action. The proliferation of research has been both productive and fragmenting: We have an excellent understanding of the many factors that shape participation in collective action, but we lack a framework that explains how these factors fit together. The Model of Belonging, Individual differences, Life experience and Interaction Sustaining Engagement (MOBILISE) addresses this gap to explain when, why, how, and for whom, collective action manifests. MOBILISE suggests that participation in collective action is shaped by individual differences (micro) and life experiences which, separately and in combination, lead to the formation of a group consciousness (meso) via the collectivization of grievance. Group consciousness is, in turn, the proximal predictor of collective action. Collective action itself has outcomes for people (dis/empowerment) and societies. These micro and meso processes occur in the context of macro societal factors relating to the cultural, political, and economic environment. MOBILISE highlights the transformational role of interaction in explaining the global reach and rapidity with which popular movements can form.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)107-164
Number of pages58
Issue numberS1
Early online date17 Mar 2022
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • activism
  • collective action
  • communication
  • culture
  • democracy
  • group consciousness
  • ideology
  • intergroup contact
  • morality
  • protest
  • radicalization
  • social change
  • social identity
  • social media
  • social movements


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