Mobility Aware Blockchain Enabled Offloading and Scheduling in Vehicular Fog Cloud Computing

Abdullah Lakhan, Muneer Ahmad, Muhammad Bilal, Alireza Jolfaei, Raja Majid Mehmood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

79 Citations (Scopus)


The development of vehicular Internet of Things (IoT) applications, such as E-Transport, Augmented Reality, and Virtual Reality are growing progressively. The mobility aware services and network-based security are fundamental requirements of these applications. However, multi-side offloading enabling blockchain and cost-efficient scheduling in heterogeneous vehicular fog cloud nodes network become a challenging task. The study formulates this problem as a convex optimization problem, where all constraints are the convex set. The goal of the study is to minimize communication cost and computation cost of applications under mobility, security, deadline, and resource constraints. Initially, we propose a novel vehicular fog cloud network (VFCN) which consists of different components and heterogeneous computing nodes. The ensure mobility privacy, the study devises Mobility Aware Blockchain-Enabled offloading scheme (MABOS). It extends blockchain enable multi-side offloading (e.g., offline offloading and online offloading) with proof of work (PoW), proof of creditability (PoC) and fault-tolerant techniques. The purpose is to offload all tasks under the secure network without any violation. Furthermore, to ensure Quality of Service (QoS) of applications, this work suggests linear search based task scheduling (LSBTS) method, which maps all tasks onto appropriate computing nodes. The experimental results show that devise schemes outperform all existing baseline approaches to the considered problem.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4212-4223
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Internet of Things
  • mobility
  • system costs
  • task deadline
  • Task offloading
  • task scheduling
  • VFCN


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