Background: Needle insertions are painful, yet they are frequently performed for adults and children without using local anaesthetic (LA) to minimise pain and anxiety.
Objectives: A hypothetical model was formulated to explore the factors related to Saudi nurses’ self-reported readiness to use LA prior to undertaking parenteral procedures in their workplaces.
Design: This was an exploratory, cross-sectional study.
Methods: Four hundred seventy-five nurses were recruited from one hospital in Saudi Arabia. We considered eighteen latent variables related to nurses’ attitudes and ability to pursue six roles associated with LA before needle procedures. A model was created to identify the staff attitudes and self-efficacy pathways influencing readiness to use LA.
Results: The nurses' readiness to use LA before needle procedures was directly predicted by organisational factors (e.g., hospital policy, doctors' orders), procedural time constraints, underestimation of needle pain, patient characteristics and medical conditions, nurses’ knowledge and skills related to LA, and parenteral procedure practices.
Conclusions: Nurses' readiness to use LA was influenced by their beliefs about certain aspects of their practice and the nature of patients’ presenting problems. Impact statement: Identifying factors that affect LA use helps us understand this issue and may assist policymakers in developing nursing practice.Impact statement: Identifying factors that affect LA use helps us understand this issue and may assist policymakers in developing nursing practice.
Bibliographical noteThis is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
- Arterial blood gases
- Clinical research
- Critical care
- Evidence-based medicine
- Intravenous cannulation
- Local anaesthesia
- Needle insertion
- Pain reduction