Monitoring and meta-metacognition in the own-race bias

Michelle Arnold

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    9 Citations (Scopus)


    Although there is a great deal of research focused on identification issues related to own-versus other-race faces very few experiments have explored whether metacognitive monitoring contributes to the own-race bias. In the current experiment the typical own-race bias paradigm was modified so that type-2 signal detection measures (e.g. Higham & Arnold, 2007a,b) could be used to directly measure metacognitive monitoring at retrieval. A second goal of the experiment was to explore whether self-reported confidence ratings differed depending on whether they were directed at answer accuracy (e.g., judging a face as "studied") versus at decisions about that answer (e.g., volunteering vs. withholding that answer). Overall the results demonstrated that monitoring does contribute to the own-race bias, in that participants were better at monitoring their memory for own-race faces. Further, there was a significant difference between the two confidence measures, and the pattern of this difference depended on whether responses had been volunteered or withheld.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)380-389
    Number of pages10
    JournalActa Psychologica
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2013


    • Confidence
    • Meta-metacognition
    • Monitoring
    • Own-race bias
    • Strategic regulation of accuracy


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