This paper presents alternatves to Mowrer's concepts of fear, hope, relief, and disappointment. The 4 concepts which are presented are not defined as increments or decrements in the fear response (as in Mowrer) but are developed within the framework of a motive-expectancy-value model. Fear motivation is defined as motivation to avoid a negative incentive or punishment, hope motivation as motivation to approach a positive incentive or reward, motivational relief as reduction in fear motivation following nonconfirmation or partial confirmation of an expectation of punishment, and motivational disappointment as reduction in hope motivation following nonconfirmation or partial confirmation of an expectation of reward. This alternative conceptualization makes a clear distinction between congnitive expectations and hope and fear motivation in that an expectation is assumed to be a necessary but not a sufficient condition of motivation. Some research implications are considered. (33 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
- MOTIVATION & EMOTION
- MOTIVATION, MOTIVE-EXPECTANCY VALUE MODEL
- THEORY, MOWRER'S REVISED 2-FACTOR, MOTIVE-EXPECTANCY VALUE