Multi-Objective Long-Period Optimal Planning Model for a Grid-Connected Renewable-Battery System

Rahmat Khezri, Amin Mahmoudi, Hirohisa Aki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper develops a practical framework for multi-objective optimal planning of a grid-connected renewable-battery system considering a long-period operation. The capacities of wind turbine, solar PV, and battery storage are optimized by minimizing three objective functions: cost of electricity (COE), grid dependency (GD), and total curtailed energy (TCE). A new rule-based energy management is developed for long-period operation where: (a) capacity degradations of PV and battery are applied, (b) purchase and sell back electricity prices are updated for each year using interest and escalation rates, and (c) salvation value of the components is considered to achieve a realistic economic analysis of the planning problem. The developed multi-objective optimal planning model is examined using long-period (10 years) real data of wind speed, solar insolation, ambient temperature, and load consumption for a grid-connected household in Australia. It is found that a household with the minimum GD (0.008%) results in a COE of 116 /kWh with a TCE of 100 MWh in 10 years. The proposed optimal planning framework based on the long-period operation is compared with the short-period operation.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Early online date13 Apr 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 13 Apr 2022


  • Batteries
  • cost of electricity
  • Costs
  • Degradation
  • grid dependency
  • Linear programming
  • Load modeling
  • long-period operation
  • optimal sizing
  • Optimization
  • Planning
  • practicality
  • total curtailed energy


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