Producing synthetic soft worm and rod structures with multiple chemical functionalities on the surface would provide potential utility in drug delivery, nanoreactors, tissue engineering, diagnostics, rheology modifiers, enzyme mimics, and many other applications. Here, we have synthesized multifunctional worms and rods directly in water using a one-step reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-mediated dispersion polymerization at high weight fractions of polymer (>10 wt %). The chain-end functionalities included alkyne, pyridyl disulfide, dopamine, β-thiolactone, and biotin groups. These groups could further be converted or coupled with biomolecules or polymers. We further demonstrated a nanorod colorimetric system with good control over the attachment of fluorescent probes.