Multihydroxy-Anthraquinone Derivatives as Free Radical and Cationic Photoinitiators of Various Photopolymerizations under Green LED

Jing Zhang, Nicholas S. Hill, Jacques Lalevée, Jean Pierre Fouassier, Jiacheng Zhao, Bernadette Graff, Timothy W. Schmidt, Scott H. Kable, Martina H. Stenzel, Michelle L. Coote, Pu Xiao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


Multihydroxy-anthraquinone derivatives [i.e., 1,2,4-trihydroxyanthraquinone (124-THAQ), 1,2,7-trihydroxyanthraquinone (127-THAQ), and 1,2,5,8-tetrahydroxyanthraquinone (1258-THAQ)] can interact with various additives [e.g., iodonium salt, tertiary amine, N-vinylcarbazole, and 2-(4-methoxystyryl)-4,6-bis(trichloromethyl)-1,3,5-triazine] under household green LED irradiation to generate active species (cations and radicals). The relevant photochemical mechanism is investigated using quantum chemistry, fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry, laser flash photolysis, steady state photolysis, and electron spin resonance spin-trapping techniques. Furthermore, the multihydroxy-anthraquinone derivative-based photoinitiating systems are capable of initiating cationic photopolymerization of epoxides or divinyl ethers under green LED, and the relevant photoinitiation ability is consistent with the photochemical reactivity (i.e., 124-THAQ-based photoinitiating system exhibits highest reactivity and photoinitiation ability). More interestingly, multihydroxy-anthraquinone derivative-based photoinitiating systems can initiate free radical crosslinking or controlled (i.e., reversible addition−fragmentation chain transfer) photopolymerization of methacrylates under green LED. It reveals that multihydroxy-anthraquinone derivatives can be used as versatile photoinitiators for various types of photopolymerization reactions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1800172
Number of pages6
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • DFT calculations
  • green LED
  • multihydroxy-anthraquinone derivatives
  • photoinitiator
  • photopolymerization


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