Background: Although the toxic effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on children are well established, there is emerging evidence about the dynamics and associated demographics of drinking patterns across pregnancy, with risky drinking more likely to take place in the period before pregnancy awareness. This study investigated the use of complementary measurement tools in the understanding of alcohol use across pregnancy and reports on the rates and patterns of alcohol use in a community antenatal setting. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption before and after awareness of pregnancy were collected via multiple measurement tools: anonymous lifestyle questionnaire, TWEAK (Tolerance, Worried, Eye-opener, Amnesia, K/Cut down) screener questionnaire, and Substance Use Inventory interviews across multiple pregnancy timepoints. Additionally, phosphatidylethanol (PEth), a direct biomarker of alcohol metabolism, collected from newborns’ dried blood spot cards, was analyzed. Results: The TWEAK screener was more likely to identify risky drinking behavior than the lifestyle questionnaire. When pregnancy was unplanned, women were more likely to find out they are pregnant significantly later (p < 0.001) and consume alcohol at moderate–heavy levels (p = 0.03), prolonging the risk to the fetus. There was an association between maternal self-reported alcohol use on the lifestyle questionnaire and Substance Use Inventory interviews, but no association between maternal reports of alcohol use and PEth results (p = 0.72). Women self-reported moderate–heavy alcohol use in early pregnancy only and a positive PEth screen indicated PAE in late pregnancy, suggesting that these methods may identify different groups of women. Conclusions: Multiple measurement tools and methods are needed to identify PAE at different points across pregnancy. Prospective sensitive interviewing is better suited to detecting PAE in early pregnancy, but not later when social desirability bias is stronger, and the use of an objective biomarker, such a PEth, may be useful for identifying the risk of PAE in late pregnancy.
- Measurement Tools
- Prenatal Alcohol Exposure