Nanobiotechnology is emerging as a new frontier of biotechnology. The potential applications of nanobiotechnology in bioenergy and biosensors have encouraged researchers in recent years to investigate new novel nanoscaffolds to build robust nanobiocatalytic systems. Enzymes, mainly hydrolytic class of enzyme, have been extensively immobilised on nanoscaffold support for long-term stabilisation by enhancing thermal, operational and storage catalytic potential. In the present report, novel nanoscaffold variants employed in the recent past for enzyme immobilisation, namely nanoparticles, nanofibres, nanotubes, nanopores, nanosheets and nanocomposites, are discussed in the context of lipase-mediated nanobiocatalysis. These nanocarriers have an inherently large surface area that leads to high enzyme loading and consequently high volumetric enzyme activity. Due to their high tensile strengths, nanoscale materials are often robust and resistant to breakage through mechanical shear in the running reactor making them suitable for multiple reuses. The optimisation of various nanosupports process parameters, such as the enzyme type and selection of suitable immobilisation method may help lead to the development of an efficient enzyme reactor. This might in turn offer a potential platform for exploring other enzymes for the development of stable nanobiocatalytic systems, which could help to address global environmental issues by facilitating the production of green energy. The successful validation of the feasibility of nanobiocatalysis for biodiesel production represents the beginning of a new field of research. The economic hurdles inherent in viably scaling nanobiocatalysts from a lab-scale to industrial biodiesel production are also discussed.
- Analytical techniques