Naval battlefield archaeology of the lost Kublai Khan fleets

Jun Kimura, Mark Staniforth, Le Thi Lien, Randall Sasaki

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    7 Citations (Scopus)


    From AD 1274 Chinese emperor Kublai Khan dispatched fleets of ships in a series of attempts to expand the empire's hegemony and extend his rule into East Asia (Japan) and Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Champa and Java). Archaeological remains associated with the fleets and battles have been found at Takashima Island, Japan and on the Bach {Eth}ǎ̀ng River, Vietnam. This paper develops a thematic approach to these sites within a framework of naval battlefield archaeology. It compares the similarities and differences in environmental conditions and archaeological contexts of the two sites in Japan and Vietnam. It also outlines recent archaeological research conducted between 2008 and 2010 on the physical remains at the Bach {Eth}ǎ̀ng River battlefield site.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)76-86
    Number of pages11
    JournalInternational Journal of Nautical Archaeology
    Issue number1
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2014


    • Bach {Eth}ǎ̀ng River
    • Japan
    • Stake yards
    • Takashima Island
    • Vietnam


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