Changes in the distribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine-like immunoreactivity have been examined in enteric neurons at various times after microsurgical lesions of the enteric plexuses. In the myenteric plexus, varicose immunoreactive nerve fibres disappeared or were reduced in number in ganglia anal to an interruption of the myenteric plexus. Up to about 2 mm on the anal side, all varicose immunoreactive fibres disappeared from the ganglia. At about 14-16 mm below an interruption, there were about 50% of the normal number of fibres in the myenteric ganglia and at about 24 mm the innervation was normal. In the submucosa, fibres immunoreactive for 5-hydroxytryptamine were absent from an area on the anal side following interruption of the myenteric plexus. From consideration of the pattern of disappearance, it is deduced that some myenteric nerve cell bodies send immunoreactive axons in an anal direction to supply submucous ganglia. The axons run for about 8 mm in the myenteric plexus, enter the submucosa and then run for a further 4 mm approximately. Thus, varicose fibres immunoreactive for 5-hydroxytryptamine, which occur around the enteric ganglion cells of both plexuses arise from nerve cell bodies in the myenteric ganglia that send their axons in an anal direction.