Neuropeptide immunoreactivity and co-existence in cardiovascular nerves and autonomic ganglia of the estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus, and cardiovascular effects of neuropeptides

Paul Karila, Michael Axelsson, Craig E. Franklin, Regina Fritsche, Ian L. Gibbins, Gordon C. Grigg, Stefan Nilsson, Susanne Holmgren

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    29 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The two aortas of the crocodile are in open connection at two sites, the foramen of Panizzae immediately outside the ventricles, and the arterial anastomosis at the level of the gut. The present study was performed to elucidate the innervation of the cardiovascular structures of the crocodile, in part to provide a further basis for the assumption that the apertures of the foramen and the anastomosis may be altered, possibly leading to changes in the flow profiles of the central vessels. The presence of smooth muscle arranged at the circumference of the foramen and in the walls of the anastomosis was demonstrated. The cardiovascular structures were innervated by nerves containing co-existing tyrosine hydroxylase, NPY and somatostatin immunoreactivities, which also occurred in neurons of the sympathetic ganglia. CGRP and substance P immunoreactive material co-existed in cardiovascular nerves, and in the nodose ganglion. In addition, bombesin, VIP and galanin immunoreactive nerves were found. Effects of neuropeptides on blood flows and blood pressures were studied in vivo. Substance P increased all blood flows measured, NPY increased the flow through the arterial anastomosis while neurotensin caused an initial decrease in the flow through the arterial anastomosis. In conclusion, there is a rich innervation of the heart and major vessels of the estuarine crocodile, including the foramen of Panizza and the arterial anastomosis. These nerves possibly regulate the distribution of blood in the cardiovascular system, which is further suggested by the results of the injection of neuropeptides.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)25-39
    Number of pages15
    JournalRegulatory Peptides
    Volume58
    Issue number1-2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 21 Jul 1995

    Keywords

    • Bombesin
    • CGRP
    • Galanin
    • Neuropeptide Y
    • Neurotensin
    • Somatostatin
    • Substance P
    • Tyrosine hydroxylase
    • VIP

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