This review covers the compounds isolated from marine sponges with neuroprotective activities during the period between 1999 and 2014 based on their chemical structures, collections sites, sponge taxonomy and neuroprotective effects. These compounds were isolated from marine sponges collected from 18 countries, most of them in Indonesia, followed by Japan. A total of 90 compounds were reported to exhibit a range of neuroprotective efficacy. These compounds were shown to inhibit â-site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), modulate the synthesis or activity of some neurotransmitters such as acetylcholinesterase and glutamate, enhancement of serotonin, reducing oxidative stress, inhibition of kinases and proteases, and enhancement of neurite growth. None of them have yet progressed into any marine pharmaceutical development pipeline, therefore sustained researches will be required to enhance the potential of utilizing these compounds in the future for prevention and therapeutic treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.