Previous research has suggested that individuals with OCD show compromised performance on tests assessing visuospatial and executive processes. This study aimed to further examine such findings by investigating the relationship between OCD symptom improvement following cognitive-behavioral therapy and changes in neuropsychological performance in individuals with OCD (n = 26), compared to test-retest control participants (n = 10). Successful treatment of OCD led to improvements relative to the control group on neuropsychological tasks measuring spatial working memory. Neuroscientific models of OCD consider such findings to be consistent with possible cortical dysfunction in OCD. However, a significant limitation of the study is in its inability to discount alternative explanations for this finding, such as the influence of changes in beliefs. Implications are discussed.