A two-factor (2 × 3) orthogonal test was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary myo-inositol (MI) on the osmoregulation and carbohydrate metabolism of euryhaline fish tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under sustained hypertonic stress (20 practical salinity units [psu]). 6 diets containing either normal carbohydrate (NC, 30%) or high carbohydrate (HC, 45%) levels, with 3 levels (0, 400 and 1,200 mg/kg diet) of MI, respectively, were fed to 540 fish under 20 psu for 8 weeks. Dietary MI supplementation significantly improved growth performance and crude protein content of whole fish, and decreased the content of crude lipid of whole fish (P < 0.05). Curled, disordered gill lamella and cracked gill filament cartilage were observed in the gill of fish fed diets without MI supplementation. The ion transport capacity in gill was significantly improved in the 1,200 mg/kg MI supplementation groups compared with the 0 mg/kg MI groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, the contents of Na+, K+, Cl− in serum were markedly reduced with the dietary MI supplementation (P < 0.05). The fish fed 1,200 mg/kg MI supplementation had the highest MI content in the gills and the lowest MI content in the serum (P < 0.05). Additionally, the fish fed with 1,200 mg/kg MI supplementation had the highest MI synthesis capacity in gills and brain (P < 0.05). Dietary MI markedly promoted the ability of carbohydrate metabolism in liver (P < 0.05). Moreover, fish in the 1,200 mg/kg MI groups had the highest antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05). This study indicated that high dietary carbohydrate would intensify stress, and impair the ability of osmoregulation in tilapia under a long-term hypersaline exposure. The supplementation of MI at 1,200 mg/kg in the high carbohydrate diet could promote carbohydrate utilization and improve the osmoregulation capacity of tilapia under long-term hypertonic stress.
- Carbohydrate metabolism
- Oreochromis niloticus