'No shoes; they walked away?': Effects of enhancements on learning and using blissymbols by normal 3-year-old children

P. Raghavendra, M. Fristoe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The present investigation studied the effects of enhancements on the learning, retention, transfer to the unlearned form, and use of Blissymbols in 40 normal 3-year-old children. The subjects, seen individually, learned either 12 standard Blissymbols (SBS) or the same 12 symbols in the enhanced form (EBS). The symbols were introduced with short explanations. The number of trials taken to reach >90% correct identification, the number of symbols selected appropriately to complete a communicative act, the number of symbols correctly identified a week after the acquisition phase was completed, and the number of symbols correctly identified in the untrained form of Blissymbols were determined. The results demonstrated that the subjects learned EBS faster than SBS, remembered more EBS than SBS in the retention task, did not differ in the communicative use of SBS and EBS, and were affected more negatively when presented with SBS than EBS in a task where the untrained form was presented. The results are discussed in terms of how very young children might benefit more from an illustration system such as EBS than from an orthographic system such as SBS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)174-186
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Speech and Hearing Research
Volume38
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1995
Externally publishedYes

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