Children with nephrotic syndrome lose excessive amounts of protein from their blood stream into their urine. This loss of protein causes tissue swelling, especially in the face, stomach and legs. The risk of infection also increases because important proteins used by their immune system have been lost. Corticosteroids such as prednisone can stop the protein leak but also have adverse effects of poor growth, cataracts, osteoporosis and high blood pressure. The review of trials compared several drugs and found cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil and levamisole are more effective than prednisone alone in preventing leaks reoccurring. More research is needed.
- nephrotic syndrome
Durkan, A., Hodson, E. M., Willis, N. S., & Craig, J. C. (2001). Non-corticosteroid treatment for nephrotic syndrome in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2001(4), [CD002290]. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002290