Noninvasive and Microinvasive Nanoscale Drug Delivery Platforms for Hard Tissue Engineering

Borislav Stoilov, Vi Khanh Truong, Stan Gronthos, Krasimir Vasilev

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Bone tissue plays a crucial role in protecting internal organs and providing structural support and locomotion of the body. Treatment of hard tissue defects and medical conditions due to physical injuries, genetic disorders, aging, metabolic syndromes, and infections is more often a complex and drawn out process. Presently, dealing with hard-tissue-based clinical problems is still mostly conducted via surgical interventions. However, advances in nanotechnology over the last decades have led to shifting trends in clinical practice toward noninvasive and microinvasive methods. In this review article, recent advances in the development of nanoscale platforms for bone tissue engineering have been reviewed and critically discussed to provide a comprehensive understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of noninvasive and microinvasive methods for treating medical conditions related to hard tissue regeneration and repair.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2925-2943
Number of pages19
JournalACS Applied Bio Materials
Issue number8
Early online date11 Aug 2023
Publication statusPublished - 21 Aug 2023


  • bone tissue
  • drug delivery system
  • hard tissue
  • microinvasive
  • nanoparticles
  • Nanoscale
  • noninvasive
  • tissue engineering


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