Novel avenues to approach non-CPAP therapy and implement comprehensive obstructive sleep apnoea care

Jean Louis Pépin, Peter Eastwood, Danny J. Eckert

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


Recent advances in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) pathophysiology and translational research have opened new lines of investigation for OSA treatment and management. Key goals of such investigations are to provide efficacious, alternative treatment and management pathways that are better tailored to individual risk profiles to move beyond the traditional continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)-focused, "one size fits all" trial-and-error approach, which is too frequently inadequate for many patients. Identification of different clinical manifestations of OSA (clinical phenotypes) and underlying pathophysiological phenotypes (endotypes) that contribute to OSA have provided novel insights into underlying mechanisms and have underpinned these efforts. Indeed, this new knowledge has provided the framework for precision medicine for OSA to improve treatment success rates with existing non-CPAP therapies such as mandibular advancement devices and upper airway surgery, and newly developed therapies such as hypoglossal nerve stimulation and emerging therapies such as pharmacotherapies and combination therapy. Additionally, these concepts have provided insight into potential physiological barriers to CPAP adherence for certain patients. This review summarises the recent advances in OSA pathogenesis, non-CPAP treatment, clinical management approaches and highlights knowledge gaps for future research. OSA endotyping and clinical phenotyping, risk stratification and personalised treatment allocation approaches are rapidly evolving and will further benefit from the support of recent advances in e-health and artificial intelligence.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2101788
Number of pages22
JournalEuropean Respiratory Journal
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • Obstructive sleep apnoea
  • non-CPAP therapy
  • Patient outcomes


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