Numerical evaluation of voltage gradient constraints on electrokinetic injection of amendments

Ming Wu, David Reynolds, Henning Prommer, Andy Fourie, David Thomas

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    22 Citations (Scopus)


    A new numerical model is presented that simulates groundwater flow and multi-species reactive transport under hydraulic and electrical gradients. Coupled into the existing, reactive transport model PHT3D, the model was verified against published analytical and experimental studies, and has applications in remediation cases where the geochemistry plays an important role.A promising method for remediation of low-permeability aquifers is the electrokinetic transport of amendments for in situ chemical oxidation. Numerical modelling showed that amendment injection resulted in the voltage gradient adjacent to the cathode decreasing below a linear gradient, producing a lower achievable concentration of the amendment in the medium. An analytical method is derived to estimate the achievable amendment concentration based on the inlet concentration. Even with low achievable concentrations, analysis showed that electrokinetic remediation is feasible due to its ability to deliver a significantly higher mass flux in low-permeability media than under a hydraulic gradient.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)60-69
    Number of pages10
    JournalAdvances in Water Resources
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2012


    • Electrokinetic remediation
    • In situ chemical oxidation
    • Numerical model
    • Oxidant plume concentration
    • PHT3D


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