Obstructive Sleep Apnea Phenotyping to Understand Pathophysiology and Improve Treatment and Outcomes

Ludovico Messineo, Danny J. Eckert

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an increasingly common disorder associated with major adverse consequences. Recent advances in OSA pathophysiology using detailed upper airway physiology techniques have identified four key pathophysiological traits or “endotypes” that contribute to OSA. These include impaired upper airway anatomy, poor upper airway muscle function during sleep, unstable control of breathing (high loop gain) and a low threshold for awakening to minor reductions in airflow (low respiratory arousal threshold). In addition, clinical OSA phenotypes based on standard diagnostic and clinical criteria have recently been defined to help categorize patients according to a single or a combination of distinct disease features. The overarching goal of these “phenotyping” approaches is to facilitate tailored therapy based on specific causes or features of the disease to reduce the associated adverse consequences in those who are most at risk of harm. This chapter summarizes the latest advances in the research findings aimed at achieving these important objectives.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Respiratory Medicine, Second Edition
EditorsSam M Janes
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9780081027240
ISBN (Print)9780081027233
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Arousal threshold
  • Loop gain
  • Lung
  • Pharyngeal anatomy
  • Phenotyping
  • Respiratory physiology
  • Sleep disordered breathing
  • Upper airway muscle responsiveness


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