Ocular morbidity on headache ruled out of systemic causes -a prevalence study carried out at a community based hospital in Nepal

Sanjay Marasini, Jyoti Khadka, Purnima Sthapit, Ranjana Sharma, Bhagvat Nepal

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    7 Citations (Scopus)


    Purpose: The association between ophthalmic anomalies and headache still needs to be investigated largely. We aimed to look for it in the context of a rural community hospital of Nepal. Methods: Hundred patients with headache were investigated for ophthalmic anomalies after the probable systemic association was ruled out. All the patients were first examined by general physician, otorhinolaryngologist and psychiatrist. Ocular evaluation consisted of detailed refractive, binocularity assessment and anterior and posterior segment examination. Data were analyzed using t-test, chi-square test, multiple logistic regression, odds ratio as well as frequency and percentages. Results: Female above the age of 17 suffered more (p < 0.05). Frontal headache was more common than occipital (p > 0.05). In students and housewives frontal headache was more common (OR 3.467, 0.848-14.174; 95% CI and 1.167, 0.303-4.499; 95% CI). Refractive error was associated with frontal headache (OR, 1.429, 1.130-0.806, 95% CI). On presentation, 88% had visual acuity 6/9 or better. Forty-four percent had refractive error among whom astigmatism was more frequent (63.63%) followed by hyperopia (27.27%) and myopia (9.09%). Known eye problems were significantly associated with refractive error and binocular vision anomalies (p < 0.001). Convergence insufficiency (16.25%) and fusional vergence (11.25%) deficiencies were common among unstable binocularity. Conclusion: Ocular anomalies co-exist with headache complains very frequently. Refractive and binocular vision anomalies need to be largely investigated in all headache patients. It is important to get a good headache history so that patients can be referred to the appropriate specialist.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)68-74
    Number of pages7
    JournalJournal of Optometry
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 2012


    • Binocular vision anomalies
    • Convergence insufficiency
    • Headache
    • Refractive errors


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