In the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia, drinking water in remote communities is mostly sourced from bores accessing groundwater. Many aquifers contain naturally high levels of iron and some are shallow with surface water intrusion in the wet season. Therefore, environmental bacteria such as iron-cycling bacteria promoting biofilm formation in pipes or opportunistic pathogens can occur in these waters. An opportunistic pathogen endemic to northern Australia and Southeast Asia and emerging worldwide is Burkholderia pseudomallei. It causes the frequently fatal disease melioidosis in humans and animals. As we know very little about the microbial composition of drinking water in remote communities, this study aimed to provide a first snapshot of the microbiota and occurrence of opportunistic pathogens in bulk water and biofilms from the source and through the distribution system of three remote water supplies with varying iron levels. Using 16s-rRNA gene sequencing, we found that the geochemistry of the groundwater had a substantial impact on the untreated microbiota. Different iron-cycling bacteria reflected differences in redox status and nutrients. We cultured and sequenced B. pseudomallei from bores with elevated iron and from a multispecies biofilm which also contained iron-oxidizing Gallionella, nitrifying Nitrospira and amoebae. Gallionella are increasingly used in iron-removal filters in water supplies and more research is needed to examine these interactions. Similar to other opportunistic pathogens, B. pseudomallei occurred in water with low organic carbon levels and with low heterotrophic microbial growth. No B. pseudomallei were detected in treated water; however, abundant DNA of another opportunistic pathogen group, non-tuberculous mycobacteria was recovered from treated parts of one supply. Results from this study will inform future studies to ultimately improve management guidelines for water supplies in the wet-dry tropics.
Bibliographical noteCopyright: © 2019 Kaestli et al. This is an openaccess article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
- water resources
- bacterial biofilms