The detection and monitoring of biomarkers in body fluids has been used to improve human healthcare activities for decades. In recent years, researchers have focused their attention on applying the point-of-care (POC) strategies into biomarker detection. The evolution of mobile technologies has allowed researchers to develop numerous portable medical devices that aim to deliver comparable results to clinical measurements. Among these, optical-based detection methods have been considered as one of the common and efficient ways to detect and monitor the presence of biomarkers in bodily fluids, and emerging aggregation-induced emission luminogens (AIEgens) with their distinct features are merging with portable medical devices. In this review, the detection methodologies that use optical measurements in the POC systems for the detection and monitoring of biomarkers in bodily fluids are compared, including colorimetry, fluorescence and chemiluminescence measurements. The current portable technologies, with or without the use of smartphones in device development, that are combined with optical biosensors for the detection and monitoring of biomarkers in body fluids, are also investigated. The review also discusses novel AIEgens used in the portable systems for the detection and monitoring of biomarkers in body fluid. Finally, the potential of future developments and the use of optical detection-based portable devices in healthcare activities are explored.
- Body fluids
- Optical detections