Optimal planning of solar photovoltaic and battery storage for electric vehicle owner households with time-of-use tariff

Sarah Merrington, Rahmat Khezri, Amin Mahmoudi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
54 Downloads (Pure)


This paper presents a practical optimal planning of solar photovoltaic (SPV) and battery storage system (BSS) for electric vehicle (EV) owner households with time of use (TOU) electricity pricing. The main aim of the optimisation problem is to minimize the Cost of Electricity (COE) while satisfying the design constraints over 20-year project lifespan. Novel rule-based home energy management systems are created to investigate the optimal sizing of two system configurations: (1) SPV-EV, and (2) SPV-BSS-EV. The arrival and departure times of the EV's availability, as well as its initial state-of-charge are incorporated into the energy management system via stochastic functions. Sensitivity analyses of the feed in tariff, grid constraint, electricity demand, and available rooftop area are provided to investigate the variations of cost of electricity and capacities of SPV and BSS. From the study results, practical guidelines for grid-connected households, based on TOU energy pricing, are provided to select the optimal capacity of SPV and BSS to accommodate the existing EV. The optimisation method is general and applicable to any household owning EV; however, in this study realistic data of solar insolation and temperature as well as household electricity demand and electricity prices are implemented for South Australia. Uncertainty analysis is investigated based on 10-year real and stochastic data to prove the optimal results. It is found that the optimal configuration for a typical SA household utilising TOU pricing with an EV requires a 10-kW SPV with a 10-kWh capacity of BSS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)535-547
Number of pages13
JournalIET Generation, Transmission and Distribution
Issue number3
Early online date23 Sept 2021
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022


  • Solar Photovoltaic
  • Battery Storage
  • Electric Vehicle


Dive into the research topics of 'Optimal planning of solar photovoltaic and battery storage for electric vehicle owner households with time-of-use tariff'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this