Integrated aquaculture has been widely used for pearl production in the freshwater pearl mussel Hyriopsis cumingii farming in China, but the production technology has not reached the state of the art. This study explored the optimal stocking ratio of fish to mussel (fish-mussel) through a 90-day experiment conducted in land-based enclosures. The integrated system included pearl mussel, grass carp, gibel carp, silver carp and bighead carp, with four fish-mussel stocking ratios by number: 1:1 (R1), 2:1 (R2), 3:1 (R3) and 4:1 (R4). The pearl yield was higher in the R2 enclosures than in the R1 and R4 enclosures, whereas the fish yield was higher in the R3 and R4 enclosures than in the R1 and R2 enclosures. The phosphorus (P) utilization efficiency was higher in the R2, R3 and R4 enclosures than in the R1 enclosures. The wastes of nitrogen (N) and P enhanced with the increase of fish-mussel ratio. Regression analyses indicated that the fish-mussel ratio was 2.3:1 for the maximal pearl yield, and 3.6:1 for the maximal fish yield, and 1.6-2.3:1 for the minimal N waste, and 1.9-2.9:1 for the minimal P waste. This study indicated that the suitable fish-mussel stocking ratio was 2:1 in the integrated culture of H. cumingii, grass carp, gibel carp, silver carp and bighead carp.