Background Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for oral diseases, which may be associated with premature death. We evaluated the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality associated with oral mucosal lesions in adults with kidney failure treated with long-term haemodialysis. Methods Oral mucosal lesions (herpes, ulceration, neoformation, white lesion, red lesion, oral candidiasis, geographical tongue, petechial lesions, and fissured tongue) were evaluated within the Oral Diseases in Haemodialysis (ORAL-D) study, a multinational cohort study of 4726 haemodialysis adults. We conducted cox regression analyses adjusted for demographic and clinical variables to evaluate the association with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Results Overall, 4205 adults (mean age 61.6 ± 15.6 years) underwent oral mucosal examination with 40% affected by at least one lesion. The prevalence of oral lesions was (in order of frequency): oral herpes 0.5%, mucosal ulceration 1.7%, neoformation 2.0%, white lesion 3.5%, red lesion 4.0%, oral candidiasis 4.6%, geographical tongue 4.9%, petechial lesions 7.9%, and fissured tongue 10.7%. During median follow-up of 3.5 years, 2114 patients died (1013 due to cardiovascular disease). No association was observed between any individual oral lesion and all-cause or cardiovascular mortality when adjusted for comorbidities, except for oral candidiasis, which was associated with all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.37, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.86) and cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.64, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.46). Conclusion Oral mucosal lesions are prevalent in haemodialysis patients. Oral candidiasis appears to be a risk factor for death due to cardiovascular diseases.
Bibliographical noteCopyright: © 2019 Ruospo et al. CC BY This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
- chronic kidney disease (CKD)
- oral diseases
- oral mucosal lesions