The structure of the liquid-vacuum interface in room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) is investigated using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) and synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SXPS). By varying the polar angle and comparing the results for the chosen ionic liquids, we identify the presence of a surface layer that is chemically different to the bulk. In particular, this layer: (i) is enriched by aliphatic carbon atoms from the saturated carbon chains of the anions and cations, and (ii) contains an unequal distribution of cations and anions in a direction normal to the surface. This unequal distribution creates a potential gradient which extends from the surface into the liquid. We show unequivocally that this layer is not due to the presence of impurities.